To Parents/friends/family:

 

 How do you know what the correct info is when It’s my own body and I am in the best position to know the signs and symptoms and cause and effect of illness?

 

§         The fact remains that I never considered the Dx of infectious disease, Period. You have the detailed life history and I never considered infectious disease as an illness, ever.

 

 

 The Instinctive Reactions to Illness

 

Rass Wilkerson, my Great Uncle whom I was living with in Oakland, CA during 1988-91, was a cook on aUS Navy Battleship in the Pacific Theater in WWII. He was also at Pearl Harbor when it was bombed (I’m the H-bomb; Fat Man & Little Boy (Tall Tree/Short Tree/Polygenic Inheritance); the Atomic Bombs dropped by the US on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the Japanese in WWII when Japan unconditionally surrendered), but did not get hurt. He and I also have a birthday on the same exact day Oct. 9th (4th grade- 9yrs old-140 IQ/This US Navy Blue/ the Blue Print to life is DNA); owns a Duplex in East Oakland. He is the person that let me and a white female gas company technician underneath the crawl space of my side of the duplex as I had called the gas company about checking for Carbon Monoxide poisoning (CNS poison). The technician described/explained that a flame which burns sooty is indicative of carbon monoxide (Incomplete combustion-CO) production. A clean burning flame is indicative of carbon dioxide (Complete combustion-CO2) and is safe. This flame was clean in appearance and the gas company tech stated that in her opinion it was safe. Therefore, all those around me clearly describe the signs and symptoms as slow and gradual just like poison. ( I know the Dr. Snell [Lisa Benton], I know the Dr. Dre, I know the Teddy Riley, I know you know, NO DIGGITY, I KNOW YOU KNOW NO DOUBT!)

 A symptom is a big fat fishy ellie(from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls"[1], from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" + πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, indicating the presence of disease or abnormality. A symptom is subjective,[2] observed by the patient,[3] and not measured.[4]

§         From Michael Dae M.D. & Dorthlee Perloff M.D. (Asked about poison before the search) this is the beginning of the poison search, to Roy Thompson (then a dental student), “That shit is a goddam fucking lie, That shit is dangerous in reference to dental fillings. Next the Student Health Service (SHS) and then on to Charles Becker M.D. (Toxicology Attending UCSF/SFGH). “I don’t give a damn what the ADA and AMA have to say about it, the real source of this mercury poisoning is dental fillings.” “It is the acidic corrosive effect of Listerine –Type mouthwash (acidic insult), obsessive –compulsive dental hygiene tooth paste, (abrasive insult) and chips and salsa/hotsauce (Chewing with acidic insult) that led to the mercury poisoning in the first place.

 

 

§         This is objectively documented by No HIV test, No STD clinic visit, no STD’S even with a severe memory jog by the Asian Neurology Attending at SFGH/UCSF, whom suggested the Dx of Neurosyphillis, a STD . I did not ask for nor did he test for this.  He was under the pressure of implied malpractice litigation and still did not get the spinal tap either as requested.

 

§         From here I went to a dentist in Oakland, CA and inquired about mercury poisoning from dental fillings and how long it would take for the signs and symptoms to get better if they were removed.

 

§         The eventual Dx was psychiatric, Anxiety Neurosis, specifically “The patient believes falsely to the point of mental illness, despite our repeated normal medical evaluations that “I am being poisoned by mercury from my dental fillings.”

 

§         Emily Osborne M.D. the student medical dean, was asked about  the possibility of brain biopsy, in order to detect Mercury in the CNS by tissue diagnosis when I walked off my 3rd year neurosurgery/neurology rotation with only a few weeks to go to 4th year. (In may 91’ June 91’=4th year student).

 

§         Fall 2000: Charles Becker M.D. connection-signs and symptoms reoccurred just like 1989 in UCSF during a period of chronically low blood sugars (3 months) after adding vinegar (acidic insult) to collard greens in the diet. This took 2-3 days to occur and the vinegar was withdrawn from the diet and so was the toothpaste (abrasive insult) withdrawn from the dental hygiene. Baking soda (non-abrasive) was used to replace the toothpaste (abrasive insult) and the signs and symptoms improved within 10-14 days. The blood sugars did not return to normal for another several weeks. This was in airtight, High-Profile, announced Public domain Surveillance.  Tyler PD does the announcing using the Civil defense system, low frequency vibrations (under 15 db) and has and can announce this anywhere in the US, including Los Angeles, Monterey, CA., Shreveport, LA, Dallas, TX. and all points in between inc. moving vehicles even in the desert of the SW USA (I.E. I-10; I-20; US 101; PCH /California HWY #1). Translation, the public (Tyler public) can hear this going on for 8 times from fall 2000 to current real time (Oct. 2002). It takes days to weeks to acclimatize to the reflective sounds, but once acclimatized, it is distinctly audible and it is also verifiable by law enforcement for that reason.

 

§         This is recorded in writing in my MS outlook journal, in numerous e-mails and in hard copy (U.S. Mail) to Reganda Russell, other key family members, Wesley Granger M.D. (General Internal Medicine-Jackson, MS), Jackie Carter, Jeneat Burist and Joyce Reeves (Tyler, TX).

 

§         The Knee in the Curve Effect: I currently do not tolerate even toothpaste for more than 24-hrs without the signs and symptoms of Mercury poisoning worsening. Vinegar containing foods are 6 hrs or less. Therefore , I use only Baking soda (non-abrasive) and Fluoride rinse as I value my CNS.  This “knee” was hit in the first week of may 2002 and is duly noted in hard copy, e-mails and MS outlook journal entries. Tyler PD announcers know it also. This occurred again with toothpaste at low-risk a tightly enclosed facility, in open air surveillance during the last week of May as I had to use toothpaste anyway. Therefore the entire city of Tyler including those UT-Tyler Health Center Attendings heard this.

 

§         “What we don’t see, we don’t Believe.:  Reganda Russell’s answer and a BIG Goof!!!!

 

§         Mild chronic metallic mercury poisoning by definition “Signs and Symptoms are subtle and the Dx is difficult and is often misdiagnosed as psychiatric illness, a fine tremor might be noted……depression” Cecil’s texts of internal medicine 1988 &2001 editions have not changed one smidge in their description. 

 

§         Obviously, Reganda Russell has not read any of these descriptions and is making the mistake which Charles Becker M.D. and the UCSF Attendings made. This is gross medical incompetence once warned not to repeat history’s mistakes. A Big Goof, and is not defensible once you have been warned in writing with Hard Copy.

 

§         Upon Closer inspection, the medical records contain a smoking gun fine tremor, low blood pressure, objective evidence of mild chronic metallic mercury poisoning and I subjectively describe the signs and symptoms of Hg poisoning which the UCSF Attendings cannot see over and over and over again, until I receive a DX of Anxiety Neurosis and Depression.

 

§         Normal white Blood Cell count and Normal Red Cell Sedimentation rate is strong evidence against infectious disease. It never was considered by myself anyway.  Dr. Koch.

 

§         Objective descriptions of my signs and symptoms in 1989 by those around me indicate “Your signs and symptoms were slow and gradual, just like poison”

 

§         There are ZERO DESCRIPTIONS /REPORTS of CNS viral infectious diseases OR ANY CNS infectious diseases ever in the entire history of medicine or science which even remotely resemble the objective descriptions of myself. Paul Volberding M.D.

 

§         However, the UT-Tyler Attendings refer to my sign and symptom match as clinically indistinguishable from mild chronic metallic mercury poisoning and the family states ”We can’t prove that you don’t have mercury poisoning, either”

 

§         Open and Shut 9 occurrences, 8 in High-profile Surveillance of Hg Toxicity

 

§         The Most Objectively Well Documented case of mercury poisoning whose only known source is dental fillings that has ever existed in the entire history of the U.S. and the World.

 

§         FBI-like detailed reconstruction of the entire life history by Law Enforcement Is the Miracle that allows the Camel to go through the eye of the needle.

 

§         Medical negligence by the ADA, 9 times is being obstructed by the family, who don’t know their asses from a hole in the ground, because Reganda Russell doesn’t know which end is up.

 

§         This is the objective case/information behind the slander/libel and defamation of character implied or direct in the media and using Internet and phone wiretap surveillance.  Voila’-There it is!!!!!

 

 

 

                Reganda Russell has violated this law of nature a scientific principle of all infectious diseases. Reganda Russell is the so called "doctor" described in the media and in the High-profile public domain surveillance. There are no infectious diseases which have ever violated this law of nature. There are ZERO REPORTS of any infectious disease ever existing which is a clinically innapparent CNS Viral Encephalitis in the entire history of medicine or science, ever. I know it and I manipulated the UT-Tyler Attendings into admitting to it in high-profile public domain announced surveillance.

 

          I know this literature from my Aseptic meningitis from 1984, after which I read about in medical textbooks which described CNS viral Aseptic Meningitis, the REAL Viral Encephalitis (Rabies is an Example), Slow virus/prion CNS infections (Mad Cow Disease is an example). Also described were bacterial CNS infectious illnesses (Bacterial Meningitis, Brain Abscess), and other CNS infectious diseases. (CNS TB,) Parasitic (Toxoplasmosis, Neurocysticercosis-pork tape worm larvae or eggs in the CNS from eating undercooked pork) and Fungal (Cryptococcal Meningitis) seen primarily in HIV/AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients.

 

          Since the invented, imaginary, "infectious" CNS clinically innapparent viral encephalitis whose signs and symptoms are clinically indistinguishable from mild chronic metallic mercury poisoning. is said to be sexually transmissible in bodily fluids, by the definition of the UT-Tyler Attendings , but really they were the victims of a media propaganda blitz, wholesale propaganda in the media by the family (Reganda Russell), defamation of character and slander, implied or direct a sort of brainwashing of the public including those UT-Tyler Attendings who took off their white lab coats when they put the cart in front of the horse (i.e.- the thought of the sexual orientation before the human body's signs and symptoms and invented a "imaginary CNS viral infectious disease".)

 

Vetstoria Avian-Flu [Bird-Flu] H5N1 You Tube Video -A Zoonosis-Like Rabies

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x6uqVK609mI

H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract

ct

Debby van Riel, Vincent J. Munster, Emmie de Wit, Guus F. Rimmelzwaan, Ron A. M. Fouchier, Ab D. M. E. Osterhaus, Thijs Kuiken*

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) may cause severe lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease in humans. However, the LRT cells to which the virus attaches are unknown for both humans and other mammals. We show here that H5N1 virus attached predominantly to type II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages, and nonciliated bronchiolar cells in the human LRT, and this pattern was most closely mirrored in cat and ferret tissues. These findings may explain, at least in part, the localization and severity of H5N1 viral pneumonia in humans. They also identify the cat and the ferret as suitable experimental animals based on this criterion.

 

Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: t.kuiken@erasmusmc.nl

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype H5N1 may cause infection of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and severe pneumonia in humans (1). However, the cell types in the LRT to which the virus attaches are unknown for both humans and experimental animals. Although attachment is not the only factor required for virus replication, this information is important both to better understand the pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza and to assess the suitability of animal models. Therefore, we compared the pattern of H5N1 virus attachment to the LRT of humans and four animal species.

Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word "cell" being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism
Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green)

The cell is the functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life.[1] Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. Humans have about 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm and a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram. The largest cells are about 135 µm in the anterior horn in the spinal cord while granule cells in the cerebellum, the smallest, can be some 4 µm and the longest cell can reach from the toe to the lower brain stem (Pseudounipolar cells).[2] The largest known cells are unfertilized ostrich egg cells which weigh 3.3 pounds.[3][4]

In 1835, before the final cell theory was developed, Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells (ie Life Comes From Life There is no Myth of Spontaneous Generation- Louis Pasteur and The Dark Ages of Microbiology, that vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.[5]

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. The descriptive term for the smallest living biological structure was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.[6]

 First Aid USMLE Step 1- 2010 Cover
First Aid USMLE Step 1- 2010 Cover by grussell903 on Photobucket

 

 

HOST FACTORS IN INFECTION

 

For any infectious process to occur, the pathogen and the host must

first encounter each other. Factors such as geography, environment,

and behavior thus influence the likelihood of infection. Although the

initial encounter between a susceptible host and a virulent organism

frequently results in disease, some organisms can be harbored in the

host for years before disease becomes clinically evident. For a complete

view, individual patients must be considered in the context of the population

to which they belong. Infectious diseases do not often occur in

isolation; rather, they spread through a group exposed from a point

source (e.g., a contaminated water supply) or from one individual to

another (e.g., via respiratory droplets). Thus, the clinician must be

alert to infections prevalent in the community as a whole. A detailed

history, including information on travel, behavioral factors, exposures

to animals or potentially contaminated environments, and living and

occupational conditions, must be elicited. For example, the likelihood

of infection by Plasmodium falciparum can be significantly affected by

altitude, climate, terrain, season, and even time of day. Antibiotic-resistant

strains of P. falciparum are localized to specific geographic regions,

and a seemingly minor alteration in a travel itinerary can

dramatically influence the likelihood of acquiring chloroquine-resistant

malaria. If such important details in the history are overlooked,

inappropriate treatment may result in the death of the patient. Likewise,

the chance of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease can be

greatly affected by a relatively minor variation in sexual practices, such

as the method used for contraception. Knowledge of the relationship

between specific risk factors and disease allows the physician to influence

a patient’s health even before the development of infection by

modification of these risk factors and—when a vaccine is available—

by immunization.

Many specific host factors influence the likelihood of acquiring an

infectious disease. Age, immunization history, prior illnesses, level of

nutrition, pregnancy, coexisting illness, and perhaps emotional state

all have some impact on the risk of infection after exposure to a potential

pathogen. The importance of individual host defense mechanisms,

either specific or nonspecific, becomes apparent in their absence, and

 

 Hepatitis-B Map Is This a Cholera Cluster/ Outbreak in the WEST END of London [Soho Section] John Snow Look at The Silk Road What Follows Hep A B C D and E in The Blood Supply Like a Caboose on a Train  Where are the Published Reports
Hepatitis-B Map Is This a Cholera Cluster/ Outbreak in the WEST END of London [Soho Section] John Snow Look at The Silk Road What Follows Hep A B C D and E in The Blood Supply Like a Caboose on a Train Where are the Published Reports by grussell903 on Photobucket

 

BLOOD AND TISSUE PROTOZOA

Malaria

Human malaria can be caused by four species of the genus

Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae.

Occasionally other species of malaria usually found in primates

can affect man. Malaria probably originated from

animal malarias in central Africa, but was spread around the

globe by human migration. Public health measures and

changes in land use have eradicated malaria in most developed

countries, although the potential for malaria transmission

still exists in many areas. Five hundred million people

are infected every year, and over one million die yearly.

Twenty five thousand international travellers per year are

infected.

Epidemiology

Malaria is transmitted by the bite of female anopheline mosquitoes.

The parasite undergoes a temperature-dependent

cycle of development in the gut of the insect, and its geographical

range therefore depends on the presence of the

appropriate mosquito species and on adequate temperature.

The disease occurs in endemic or epidemic form throughout

the tropics and subtropics except for some areas above

2000 m (Fig. 4.34). Australia, the USA and most of the Mediterranean

littoral are also malaria-free. In hyperendemic areas

(51–75% rate of parasitaemia, or palpable spleen in children

2–9 years of age) and holoendemic areas (> 75% rate) where

transmission of infection occurs year round, the bulk of the

mortality is seen in infants. Those who survive to adulthood

acquire significant immunity; low-grade parasitaemia is still

present, but causes few symptoms. In mesoendemic areas

(11–50%) there is regular seasonal transmission of malaria.

Mortality is still mainly seen in infants, but older children and

adults may develop chronic ill health due to repeated infections.

In hypoendemic areas (0–10%), where infection occurs

in occasional epidemics, little immunity is acquired and the

whole population is susceptible to severe and fatal disease.

Malaria can also be transmitted in contaminated blood

transfusions. It has occasionally been seen in injecting drug

users sharing needles and as a hospital-acquired infection

related to contaminated equipment. Rare cases are acquired

outside the tropics when mosquitoes are transported from

endemic areas (‘airport malaria’), or when the local mosquito

population becomes infected by a returning traveller.

 

 

 CDC- Yellow Book For International Travel for Medical Professionals -2010
CDC- Yellow Book For International Travel for Medical Professionals -2010 by grussell903 on Photobucket

 

Hi Joyce Do you really get it NO PUBLISHED REPORTS OF ANY SUCH INFECTIOUS Disease BY THE ADMISSION OF UT- TYLER HEALTH center VIA PUB-MED SEARCHES FEB 19TH 2002 The Holy Grail 

 

 What is the The CDC 2010 Yellow Book for Travelers (Pro-Tools) for Medical Professionals... Malaria is in here  So is African Sleeping Sickness and What is the Division of the American Board of Medical Specialties-- A Medical Specialty called TRAVEL MEDICINE...

 

What is an ENDEMIC AREA  ..?   For Malaria, for Typhoid Fever,  African Sleeping Sickness .? 

 

Have you Heard of The  Myth of Spontaneous Generation- The Dark Ages of Microbiology- and Louis Pasteur and The GERM THEORY !!!! 

An Imaginary Pink Elephant and a Mythological Unicorn is being made-up by The Family and UT-Tyler Health Center ID section- Richard Wallace “Round tree stump” and No MD. Behind The Name Peter Barnes “The Horse is Already out of the Barn”--- Horse Herpes in the Birth Canal –Their Opinion is Just a Bunch of HORSE SHIT !!  

And it takes off their White Coats …!! 

 

 

Life comes from life Joyce… Malaria is not Found in Scotland, Ireland, IN fact IT IS NOT found IN ANY OF THE British ISLES    Nor Australia, Birdbrain ESPN Announcer Chris Fowler Nor are Green  Amazon Rain Forest Parrots either Andy Murray…!!!  are we Having some Technical Difficulties Here ESPN Scottish Soccer Announcer During Satellite GREEN SCREEN  Dropouts during the 2008 UEFA European Soccer Championships won by Spain as I was watching during LIVE FEEDS

 

The Fearless Leader of Germany  Andrea Merkel was Watching 

You Got it now .. Malaria Causes High Fevers as well ..NO Flame Crack Cocaine !!

 

Gerald  grussell903@gmail.com

 

 

 

------------------------
About BioVisions
------------------------
Research in the biological sciences often depends on the development of new ways of visualizing important processes and molecules. Indeed, the very act of observing and recording data lies at the foundation of all the natural sciences. The same holds true for the teaching and communication of scientific ideas; to see is to begin to understand. The continuing quest for new and more powerful ways to communicate ideas in biology is the focus of BioVisions at Harvard University.

The potential of multimedia in the area of biology education has yet to be fulfilled. Indeed, multimedia as a means of imparting biological information is years behind its use in other areas such as entertainment. BioVisions is meant to close this gap by combining the highest quality multimedia development with rigorous scientific models of how biological processes occur. In addition, this new generation of science visualizations are not meant to simply be simulations or mirrors held up to reality, rather they are designed with a specific pedagogical goal in mind. This means that each decision made on how to represent a given biological process also includes consideration of how best to visually communicate particular aspects of the process.

BioVisions is based on a collaborative community of Harvard scientists, teaching faculty, students, and multimedia professionals. It is directed by Dr. Robert A. Lue, who founded BioVisions with generous and continuing support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Harvard University

 Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Ed- 2008 As read Inside Barnes and Nobles-South Tyler in Audible Live Feeds -Pro Tools
Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine 17th Ed- 2008 As read Inside Barnes and Nobles-South Tyler in Audible Live Feeds -Pro Tools by grussell903 on Photobucket

 

 

The name Chicago derives from a word in the language spoken by the Miami and Illinois peoples meaning ?striped skunk,  a word they also applied to the wild leek (known to later botanists as Allium tricoccum).

This became the Indian name for the Chicago River, in recognition of the presence of wild leeks in the watershed. When early French explorers began adopting the word, with a variety of spellings, in the late seventeenth century, it came to refer to the site at the mouth of the Chicago River.

Chemical Senses- The Journal of Taste and Smell Editor-in-Chief Master Scenthound Wolfgang Myerhof PhD - How does Myerhof Think I & the Brother 140 IQ in US Navy recognized the Sardine Oil Odor Rubbed on my Swollen Mumps Infected Jaws in Childhood 2nd grade - [or the Pink Salmon Odor during the ACC championship game Fox Sports SW Duke vs UNC - Jasmine Thomas (Cute)
 

 Chemical Senses- The Journal of Taste and Smell Editor-in-Chief Master Scenthound  Wolfgang Myerhof
Chemical Senses- The Journal of Taste and Smell Editor-in-Chief Master Scenthound Wolfgang Myerhof by grussell903 on Photobucket


Olfactory dysfunction and its measurement in the clinic and workplace.
Olfactory (Smell) Dysfunction and Its Measurement in the Clinic and Workplace Int Arch Occ and Env Health 2006 Watching ACC Women's B-Ball Tourney 2011 Jasmine Thomas Wash St PAC-10  Scoring Leader  Klay Thompson- POT SMELL Was Probable Cause)  Arrest
Olfactory (Smell) Dysfunction and Its Measurement in the Clinic and Workplace Int Arch Occ and Env Health 2006 Watching ACC Women's B-Ball Tourney 2011 Jasmine Thomas Wash St PAC-10 Scoring Leader Klay Thompson- POT SMELL Was Probable Cause) Arrest by grussell903 on Zooomr
Doty RL.

Smell and Taste Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 5 Ravdin Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. doty@mail.med.upenn.edu
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of practical means for quantitatively assessing the sense of smell in both the clinic and workplace. To address basic measurement issues, including those of test sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. To describe and discuss factors that influence olfactory function, including airborne toxins commonly found in industrial settings.

METHODS: Selective review and discussion.

RESULTS: A number of well-validated practical threshold and suprathreshold tests are available for assessing smell function. The reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of such techniques vary, being influenced by such factors as test length and type. Numerous subject factors, including age, sex, health, medications, and exposure to environmental toxins, particularly heavy metals, influence the ability to smell.

CONCLUSIONS: Modern advances in technology, in conjunction with better occupational medicine practices, now make it possible to reliably monitor and limit occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals and their potential adverse influences on the sense of smell. Quantitative olfactory testing is critical to establish the presence or absence of such adverse influences, as well as to (a) detect malingering, (b) establish disability compensation, and (c) monitor function over time.

PMID: 16429305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

FDA Panel Says Menthols Need to Go

 Kool non filter menthol cigarettes

They’ve been sussing it out for months now, and today a scientific panel convened to make recommendations to the Food and Drug Administration about the safety of mentholated cigarettes has reached a conclusion: menthols should go.

The panel of scientists, physicians, and other public health officials has worked for a year gathering data about menthols in order to make their conclusion. Though their report states that mentholated cigarettes aren’t any worse for consumers than regular cigarettes—a point tobacco lobbyists have been trying to sell for years—they still decided that “removal of menthol cigarettes from the marketplace would benefit the public health.”

Their reasoning states that menthols, which are easier to smoke than regular cigarettes because they mask the harsh taste with a “minty” flavor,

 

 

 

 are more attractive to teenage smokers. The panel also found that the targeted marketing of menthols to African-Americans has resulted in a boom of Black smokers in America.

And that, if you peek behind the curtain, is from where a lot of this fight to keep menthols on the market stems.

About 80-percent of Black smokers choose menthols, making up a large share of the $70 billion American cigarette industry. With about 22 percent of Blacks smoking, the loss of menthols and the African-American dollars that buy them would be a huge financial blow for cigarette purveyors. The tobacco industry knows this, which is why they’ve lobbied so hard to keep them around.

In a letter to the panel, the tobacco industry argued—once again—that menthols aren’t physically worse for smokers than other cigarettes. It also said that a ban on menthols would lead to a black market for mentholated brands, thus spiking violence and sapping tax revenue from the government (which seems a bit far-fetched).

Though the FDA certainly doesn’t have to do what the panel tells it, it generally does. If that’s the case, get ready for less Newport ads in Black communities, and less heart disease and lung cancer, too.

 

 

 

 

Olfaction

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Jump to: navigation, search

Olfaction (also known as olfactics; adjectival form: "olfactory") is the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialized sensory cells of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and, by analogy, sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates. Many vertebrates, including most mammals and reptiles, have two distinct olfactory systems—the main olfactory system, and the accessory olfactory system (mainly used to detect pheromones). For air-breathing animals, the main olfactory system detects volatile chemicals, and the accessory olfactory system detects fluid-phase chemicals.[1] For water-dwelling organisms, e.g., fish or crustaceans, the chemicals are present in the surrounding aqueous medium. Olfaction, along with taste, is a form of chemoreception. The chemicals themselves which activate the olfactory system, generally at very low concentrations, are called odorants.

 

Main olfactory system

Olfactory epithelium=== In vertebrates smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium. The proportion of olfactory epithelium compared to respiratory epithelium (not innervated) gives an indication of the animal's olfactory sensitivity. Humans have about 10 cm2 (1.6 sq in) of olfactory epithelium, whereas some dogs have 170 cm2 (26 sq in). A dog's olfactory epithelium is also considerably more densely innervated, with a hundred times more receptors per square centimetre. [citation needed]===

Molecules of odorants passing through the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus lining the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory sensory neurons. This may occur by diffusion or by the binding of the odorant to odorant binding proteins. The mucus overlying the epithelium contains mucopolysaccharides, salts, enzymes, and antibodies (these are highly important, as the olfactory neurons provide a direct passage for infection to pass to the brain).

In insects smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the chemosensory sensilla, which are present in insect antenna, palps and tarsa, but also on other parts of the insect body. Odorants penetrate into the cuticle pores of chemosensory sensilla and get in contact with insect Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) or Chemosensory proteins (CSPs), before activating the sensory neurons.

Interactions of Olfaction with other senses

[edit] Olfaction and taste

Olfaction, taste and trigeminal receptors together contribute to flavor. The human tongue can distinguish only among five distinct qualities of taste, while the nose can distinguish among hundreds of substances, even in minute quantities. It is during exhalation that the olfaction contribution to flavor occurs in contrast to that of proper smell which occurs during the inhalation phase[20]

Disorders of olfaction

The following are disorders of olfaction:[23]

 

Olfaction in other animals

The importance and sensitivity of smell varies among different organisms; most mammals have a good sense of smell, whereas most birds do not, except the tubenoses (e.g., petrels and albatrosses), and the kiwis. Among mammals, it is well-developed in the carnivores and ungulates, who must always be aware of each other, and in those that smell for their food, like moles. Having a strong sense of smell is referred to as macrosmatic.

Figures suggesting greater or lesser sensitivity in various species reflect experimental findings from the reactions of animals exposed to aromas in known extreme dilutions. These are, therefore, based on perceptions by these animals, rather than mere nasal function. That is, the brain's smell-recognizing centers must react to the stimulus detected, for the animal to show a response to the smell in question. It is estimated that dogs in general have an olfactory sense approximately a hundred thousand to a million times more acute than a human's. This does not mean they are overwhelmed by smells our noses can detect; rather, it means they can discern a molecular presence when it is in much greater dilution in the carrier, air. Scenthounds as a group can smell one- to ten-million times more acutely than a human, and Bloodhounds, which have the keenest sense of smell of any dogs[citation needed], have noses ten- to one-hundred-million times more sensitive than a human's. They were bred for the specific purpose of tracking humans, and can detect a scent trail a few days old. The second-most-sensitive nose is possessed by the Basset Hound, which was bred to track and hunt rabbits and other small animals.

Bears, such as the Silvertip Grizzly found in parts of North America, have a sense of smell seven times stronger than the bloodhound, essential for locating food underground. Using their elongated claws, bears dig deep trenches in search of burrowing animals and nests as well as roots, bulbs, and insects. Bears can detect the scent of food from up to 18 miles away; because of their immense size they often scavenge new kills, driving away the predators (including packs of wolves and human hunters) in the process.

The sense of smell is less-developed in the catarrhine primates (Catarrhini), and nonexistent in cetaceans, which compensate with a well-developed sense of taste. In some prosimians, such as the Red-bellied Lemur, scent glands occur atop the head. In many species, olfaction is highly tuned to pheromones; a male silkworm moth, for example, can sense a single molecule of bombykol.

Fish too have a well-developed sense of smell, even though they inhabit an aquatic environment. Salmon utilize their sense of smell to identify and return to their home stream waters. Catfish use their sense of smell to identify other individual catfish and to maintain a social hierarchy. Many fishes use the sense of smell to identify mating partners or to alert to the presence of food.

Insects primarily use their antennae for olfaction. Sensory neurons in the antenna generate odor-specific electrical signals called spikes in response to odor. They process these signals from the sensory neurons in the antennal lobe followed by the mushroom bodies and lateral horn of the brain.

 

 

Identification of Outbreak-Associated Cases of S. enteritidis Infection in Minnesota

An outbreak-associated confirmed case of S. enteritidis infection was defined as a culture-confirmed S. enteritidis infection occurring in September or October 1994 within one week after the consumption of Schwan's ice cream. We defined an outbreak-associated probable case as the occurrence of diarrhea (three or more loose stools in a 24-hour period) plus fever or chills within one week after product consumption. Confirmed cases were identified through laboratory-based surveillance at the Division of Public Health Laboratories. We attempted to interview all patients reported to have S. enteritidis infection in Minnesota during 1994 to assess their exposure to the implicated product.

The median age of the patients with outbreak-associated confirmed salmonellosis was 13 years (range, 5 months to 84 years); 93 (62 percent) were male. All patients with confirmed salmonellosis reported symptoms of gastroenteritis, with fever reported by 131 of 144 (91 percent), chills by 95 of 124 (77 percent), and bloody stools by 57 of 135 (42 percent). The median duration of diarrhea was 8 days (range, 1 to 21). Hospitalization was reported by 30 of 112 patients (27 percent); there were no deaths reported.

Microbiologic Investigation

All isolates of salmonella submitted to the Division of Public Health Laboratories were serotyped.8 Stools submitted to the Division of Public Health Laboratories from patients with probable salmonellosis were cultured for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7.9 Ice cream and environmental samples were cultured at the Minnesota Department of Agriculture or FDA laboratories.10 Serotyping of nonhuman isolates was performed at the FDA laboratory.10 The Minnesota Department of Agriculture laboratory measured the concentrations of microorganisms in the samples.10 Phage typing was performed at the CDC.11

 

This nationwide outbreak of S. enteritidis gastroenteritis, the largest ever recognized in the United States as due to a common vehicle, was caused by the consumption of contaminated ice cream. Our investigation suggests that cross-contamination of pasteurized ice cream premix occurred during transport in tanker trailers that had previously hauled nonpasteurized liquid eggs containing S. enteritidis. These conclusions are supported by several findings. First, a case–control study demonstrated that S. enteritidis infections were associated only with the consumption of Schwan's ice cream. Second, a study of Schwan's customers showed an increased risk of gastrointestinal illness after consumption of Schwan's ice cream. Third, the outbreak ended after sales of contaminated ice cream stopped. Fourth, S. enteritidis was isolated from unopened ice cream products. Finally, a dose–response relation was demonstrated between the proportion of a product's premix that had been carried in tanker trailers immediately after an egg load and the likelihood of that product's being associated with illness. Ice cream premix was not repasteurized after transportation; thus, any contamination that occurred during transport would not have been eliminated at the ice cream plant.

 

 

 

 Heroin On The Silk Road [HIV A Zoonosis-Like Rabies & Drugs]-IVDU, Commercial Sex Worker (Heterosexual Transmission) and Hospital Contaminated-REUSED Needles in Children in The Asian Steppes

 

 


 
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Diagnosis and Treatment of Drug Abuse in Family Practice

 
Drug Use Questionnaire
 
The following questions concern information about your possible involvement with drugs not including alcoholic beverages during the past 12 months. Carefully read each statement and decide if your answer is "Yes" or "No". Then circle the appropriate response beside the question.

In the following statements "drug abuse" refers to:

  1. the use of prescribed or over-the-counter drugs in excess of the directions, and
  2. any nonmedical use of drugs.

The various classes of drugs may include cannabis (marijuana, hashish), solvents (e.g., paint thinner), tranquilizers (e.g., Valium), barbiturates, cocaine, stimulants (e.g., speed), hallucinogens (e.g., LSD) or narcotics (e.g., heroin). Remember that the questions do not include alcoholic beverages.

Please answer every question. If you have difficulty with a statement, then choose the response that is mostly right.

These Questions Refer to the Past 12 Months

1. Have you used drugs other than those required for medical reasons? Yes No
2. Do you abuse more than one drug at a time? Yes No
3. Are you unable to stop using drugs when you want to? Yes No
4. Have you ever had blackouts or flashbacks as a result of drug use? Yes No
5. Do you ever feel bad or guilty about your drug use? Yes No
6. Does your spouse (or parents) ever complain about your involvement with drugs? Yes No
7. Have you neglected your family because of your use of drugs? Yes No
8. Have you engaged in illegal activities in order to obtain drugs? Yes No
9. Have you ever experienced withdrawal symptoms (felt sick) when you stopped taking drugs? Yes No
10. Have you had medical problems as a result of your drug use (e.g., memory loss, hepatitis, convulsions, bleeding)? Yes No

Edited in MS Front Page 2003 on Thus Evening April 15th 2010 after False Stop by Tyler PD #30 by Nicotine Addicted (Chewing Tobacco and Spitting on Sidewalk) and White Girl KKK Lair Addicted Tyler PD Officer Stienmuller Defective Leadership [White Girls Led him -Lisa Spooner am News Anchor was stated of CBS-19 to Have a Yeast Infection and Case LAW and MedicalCase reports were described  US Supreme Court Case Law { Both Controlling and Concurring}  Texas vs Brown 1979 Texas Penal Code 38.02 Failure to ID ruled Unconstitutional   Ofc Robeson and Ofc Cook in 30 min False Unlawful Detention in Front of Aspen Place Apts.

Interpretation (Each "Yes" response = 1)

Score Degree of Problems
Related to Drug Abuse
Suggested Action
0 No Problems Reported None At This Time
1-2 Low Level Monitor, Reassess At A Later Date
3-5 Moderate Level Further Investigation
6-8 Substantial Level Intensive Assessment

Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10). (Copyright 1982 by the Addiction Research Foundation. Used with Permission)


Now you see why Smith County Judge Becky Dempsey is at the Incompetency Hearing on that Artificial Leg  Trying To Change her Cell Phone from Ringer to VIBRATION MODE She knows BEFORE what it is going To FEEL Like (A Sensory Memory- This is the basis for a Review of Systems in Medicine -A PRO-TOOL) and WHICH LEG TO PUT IT NEXT TO


 
.. We KNOW in NEUROLOGY BEFORE That we are Going To Give you an Abnormal Sensation (Called a Symptom) with a
PRO-TOOL Called A VIBROMETER !!

 
 Mother Nature is on the PHONE Becky Dempsey Answer The PHONE .. Which Line is It ..? Breast, Eye, Tooth Phantom Syndrome or The 3rd LEG GURL -Point to It Mc Burney's Point Like Jackie Carter's  Appendicitis Pain ( age 16 yrs) 
and ACUTE Abdomen with Ruptured Appendix  and Pus In The Belly ( Flame Marker)  a Medical Emergency  UT-Tyler Health Center. with A FORGET-ME-NOT BLUE Surgical Scar and a PAIN MEMORY TO MATCH IT as Verified by her Mother Elsie CARTER in Announced High-Tech Surveillance in North Tyler Texas- Ross St.  

 
How can you feel it Unless you HIT A NERVE
White GURL with The BIG LEGS Long Fibers First Samuel Longhorn Clemens "MERRITT THE LEWD" Lewis P. Rowland..-Merritt's Textbook of NEUROLOGY  GROSSLY INCOMPETENT. 

 
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: <noreply@delicious.com>
Date: Tue, Mar 30, 2010 at 6:53 AM
Subject: Gerald Russell wants to share "Phantom limb Syndrome Limb Body Part is Still There Moving or Painful- Itching, Tingling, Squeezing in Amputees, Post-Appendectomy Breast Removal, Eye-Removal, Tooth Removal etc- Wikipedia, Forget..."
To: grussell903@gmail.com


Phantom limb Syndrome Limb Body Part is Still There Moving or Painful- Itching, Tingling, Squeezing in Amputees,

Bookmark: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phantom_limb
Gerald Russell's notes: A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb (even an organ, like the appendix) is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately with other body parts.[1][2][3] Approximately 5 to 10% of individuals with an amputation experience phantom sensations in their amputated limb, and the majority of the sensations are painful.[4] Phantom sensations may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, e.g. after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain) or removal of an eye (phantom eye syndrome). The missing limb often feels shorter and may feel as if it is in a distorted and painful position. Occasionally, the pain can be made worse by stress, anxiety, and weather changes. Phantom limb pain is usually intermittent. The frequency and intensity of attacks usually decline with time.[5]
A slightly different sensation known as phantom pains can also occur in people who are born without limbs and people who are paralyzed.[6][

You can find more of Gerald Russell's bookmarks at
- http://delicious.com/grussell903

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       When a sexually transmitted infectious agent or almost any infectious agent is said to be the cause of illness, the population at risk can be anyone out of 5 billion people. When it is infectious and sexually transmissible, you have now included the entire world's population for several reasons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

an anogenitorectal syndrome. Both syndromes may be associated with systemic features, including  fever, arthralgia (Joint Aches),

myalgia (Muscle Aches), malaise and anorexia. In heterosexuals, the most common manifestation is tender inguinal or femoral lymphadenopathy

that may go on to suppurate and ulcerate. In homosexual men, anorectal symptoms of proctitis and

proctocolitis occur, and excruciating pain helps to distinguish it from many other forms of proctitis. Symptoms include anal

discharge, which may be mucous, purulent or bloody. Pain, tenesmus and constipation are common. At this stage, the clinical and sigmoidoscopic changes may resemble those of Crohn’s disease.15

There are case reports of LGV causing severe rectal pathology in heterosexual women.16


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Cart Is IN FRONT of The HORSE

 

(All The Cigarette Smoking in The World Does not Means That LUNG Cancer is Present ONLY THE SIGNS and SYMPTOMS Of LUNG Cancer means The Patient Has Lung Cancer !!! Not The Thought of Cigarette Smoking- This is The Biggest Myth That Moves in High-Tech Surveillance and it is your mentality as Stated over and over again in announced High-Tech surveillance with NO CORE CONCEPT, NO INSIGHT AND NO NOBEL PRIZE. and is your SURREAL REPEATED MISTAKE  and Easily Exploited Achilles heel .

 

Louis Pasteur (click link) and His Ultimate Arc'd Triumph The Classic Zoonosis The Rabies vaccine as Developed in Animal Models the Dog.    

 

 

                                      Sincerely and Objectively Yours,

                                               gerald russell

                                                                           


Cow Madness

 

 


New mad cow woes

British beef blues

Curious cause

Down deer, ill elk

Can't happen here?

Laughing death in New Guinea

Identifying disease agents

Menacing microbes

Glossary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


But does it make 'em sick?
How do you know agent "X" causes disease "Y"?Like all supposed causes of disease, the notion that aberrant prions cause BSE (Want The Why Files guide to mad-cow lingo?) and related diseases -- must satisfy the "Koch postulates." The pioneering German microbiologist Robert Koch argued -- and scientists now accept -- that only after a positive answer to four questions can we say that agent "X" causes disease "Y":

The agent must be present in every case of the disease;

The agent must be isolated from the host and grown in a lab dish;

The disease must be reproduced when a pure culture of the agent is inoculated into a healthy susceptible host; and

The same agent must be recovered again from the experimentally infected host.

So it's cut and dried?
Not exactly. The hallowed postulates, a prime mover in the field of medical microbiology, have some limitations:

Some agents (including prions and viruses), do not grow in a lab dish, but only in a living cell.

Ethically speaking, you can't do your "healthy susceptible host" testing with people, but with lab animals or livestock. Testing the infectivity of a possible human pathogen in other animals always raises a question: If the pathogen doesn't infect the lab animal, does that mean it cannot infect humans?

In performing tests to satisfy Koch, careful scientists always use uninoculated control animals, so the only difference between the "experimental animals" and "control animals" is the inoculation, or deliberate infection. Controls are used to remove the chance that the experimental animals got sick for unrelated reasons, such as their genetic makeup or some experimental conditions.

Here's more on the history of virology.

Tell me more about microbes in their mysterious variety.

 

 

 

 

 

 

backmore

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Why Files

 

 

 

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